1 Clean Your Bike
Usually the first thing I want to do after a long ride is eat, and shower. There are a lot of benefits that come from always cleaning your bike off though. I wouldn't recommend showering with your bike, but it's a good idea to give it a good rinse off to get rid of the dirt and grime.
Keeping your bike clean is also the easiest way to increase the life of your bike. Having a clean bike will also help it ride smoother.
2 Lube Your Chain
Without your chain, your bike wouldn’t be all that useful. There are a few things that go into lubing a bike chain. Make sure to use bike specific oil, motor oil is too heavy and will end up attracting more dust and debris.
Don’t use WD40! Bicycle chains are too heavy and fast moving for WD40 to have any effect on them, in fact, using WD40 on a bike chain is worse than using no lubricant at all.
3 Inspect Your Brake Pads
Being able to stop is important. Depending on how much you ride, you will need to replace your brake pads a couple of times a year. Rim brakes need to be replaced when the groves are gone. Disc brakes start out at about 3 to 4mm and need to be replace when they wear down to about 1mm.
4 Lube All Moving Parts of Your Bike
There are a lot of moving parts on your bike, and keeping then moving smoothly is an important part of bike maintenance. Using a bike specific lube is vital to getting the best results from your maintenance sessions.
Start with your derailleurs, then move on to your brakes (not the pads, just the parts that move) then lube anything that moves.
5 Ensure Optimum Tightness with a Torque Wrench
There are specific torques that certain parts of your bike can handle, sometimes the torque will be written on the bike, other times you will need to look up what torque is recommended where.
While riding, your bike is subject to all sorts of vibrations. The key to keeping up on the tightness of your bikes is to checking it a few times a year. Using a torque wrench will prevent overtightening.
6 Check Your Tires
Make sure that your tires are in good condition and that the pressure is good. Before every ride pump them up to the correct psi. Riding with tire pressure that is too low can cause pinch flats.